When Hugo Gernsback was first casting around for a pithy term for the new genre fiction he was featuring in his pulps, he opted for the portmanteau ‘Scientifiction.’ It didn’t catch on and, rather reluctantly, he tried again, this time with ‘Science Fiction.’
The earliest of his magazines, with titles like Electrical Experimenter (founded 1913), featured both stories and science journalism. By the time Amazing Stories – his first magazine solely dedicated to SF – arrived, in 1926, the genre had already settled down into the standard form for the Golden Age – stories set in the future, often on distant planets featuring extraterrestrials, speculating, more or less wildly, on how the technologies of the time might one day have advanced.
Tales which particularly closely adhered to the known laws of physics, became known as ‘Hard’ SF. This sub-genre is exemplified by Hal Clement’s classic short Dust Rag (1956), in which a lunar explorer out on EVA, has to figure out how to clear away the statically-charged moon dust covering his visor, or die. The story is both satisfyingly scientific and, by virtue of its future lunar setting, classic SF.
Which is all a roundabout way of broaching the question; is all scientific fiction, Science Fiction, or does there arrive a point where the science component of the story is so rooted in the known and the present that it becomes something different?
I recently read Those Who Seek, Daniil Granin’s 1954 novel about the lives and loves of staff at a Soviet electrical power transmission research institute. It’s a thrilling and absorbing tale, in part because of the window it opens onto how (relatively) ordinary people lived their lives under the Soviet system, in part because of what the book has to say about that system itself (and it’s not in any way a propaganda piece) and in part because of the gorgeous translation by Robert Dalglish (mine is the Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, edition), which brings the story alive and makes you care about the characters.
The overarching story focusses on new laboratory head, the aloof and unworldly Lobanov. At work, he battles conflicting resource demands, Party politics and bureaucratic inertia, to try and get support for the development of his baby – an improved ‘locator’ for finding breaks in transmission lines. Off duty, the reader follows the course of his unsatisfactory affair with the enigmatic Rita.
There are scenes that will be familiar to anyone who has worked in science and technology. The heartbreaking one where engineer-turned-housewife Liza first attends, the flees her class reunion after suffering the disdainful disappointment of her former professor. The joyous epiphany via which the fading Chief Engineer, Dmitri Alexeyevich first grasps and then decides to back Lobanov’s project. And of course you want to slap Lobanov around the head a few times, when he rebuffs force-of-nature Nina’s interest in him at the annual Komsomol outing.
And there are some fabulous throwaway references, notably to the finest poetry on scientific themes being that written by the great Lomonosov. Granin, the author, would doubtless have been very familiar with his works. Now I despair of ever finding any in English translation, well apart from this one.
Is Those Who Seek SF? My heart says yes, my head says no, even given the MacGuffin of Lobanov’s ‘locator.’ I have another Granin in my ‘to read’ pile: Into The Storm about weather forecasting/control – let’s see how that turns out!
In western SF, the works of William Gibson are an interesting case. Since his debut Neuromancer (1984) and its off-planet denouément – undeniably SF, he’s slowly been creeping back towards the present and reining-in the tech to the point where Spook Country (2007) is almost better labelled a techno-thriller. Maybe that’s one way we reclassify fiction dealing with the known science of the present.
In Irish writing, John Banville’s biographical trilogy of works on Copernicus, Kepler and Newton (Doctor Copernicus (1976) (which I read this year), Kepler (1981) and The Newton Letter (1982)) is sometimes loosely referred to as science fiction. The three books are, of course, first and foremost historical fiction about scientists but Banville infuses them with enough reflection on the nature of the cosmos, that treating them as forward-looking speculative fiction is not unreasonable.
Scientific fiction is a without question a topic that grows in the telling. I can see myself returning to it again in the not too distant future.