Fantasy

Buile Shuibhne – The Madness of King Sweeney

I’ve been to some great stuff at the Clonmel Junction Arts Festival (CJAF) over the years: the puppet show The Man Who Planted Trees, and 3epkano, live playing their soundtrack to accompany The Golem, particularly spring to mind.  So it was with high hopes that I went to the world premier of Buile Shuibhne – The Madness of King Sweeney last night, and I wasn’t disappointed.

I didn’t know quite what to expect.  The festival programme billed the piece as a …unique blend of new music and spoken word… …commissioned by leading uilleann piper David Power, and written by New York-based composer Dana Lyn… [and] …performed by Power together with acclaimed string ensemble the ConTempo Quartet. Interwoven with the music, actor Barry McGovern reads excerpts from a translation of the ancient story… This sort of mélange could go several ways; what was served up was very much a straight contemporary music concert and none the worse for that.

Bookended by two other short works, the 45 minutes or so of Buile Shuibhne consisted of seven passages read from the poem, each followed by a musical recapitulation of the action described.

The story of Sweeney was new to me.  In summary, Sweeney, the pagan King of Dál Riada, offends Saint Ronan the Fair, who is erecting a church in his territory without permission.  As a result  Ronan, curses Sweeney to wander about the world naked and in madness until he should die by spear point.  And so it transpires, with much blood letting along the way, giving the lie to the notion that in Ireland the transition from paganism to Christianity was bloodless, as David Power noted in his introduction.

The one jarring note in the tale is Sweeney’s death-bed embrace of Christianity at the end.  Presumably this is the authorial propaganda of the time.  It is rather the implacable Ronan, with his lack of compassion and his cursing, that radiates the evil as the action is unfolding; Sweeney is merely headstrong.  There seems to be no good reason why his repentance should be accompanied by a spiritual cost.

I found the full text of J.G. O’Keeffe’s 1913 translation of the poem on-line.  I’m not sure if it was the same text used for the performance, but it seems very similar.  Here’s an excerpt of the story contained in the opening movement:-

Suibhne was greatly angered and enraged, and
he set out with the utmost haste to drive the cleric from the
church. His wife Eorann, daughter of Conn of Ciannacht,
in order to hold him, seized the wing of the fringed, crimson
cloak which was around him, so that the fibula of pure white
silver, neatly inlaid with gold, which was on his cloak over
his breast, sprang through the house. Therewith, leaving his
cloak with the queen, he set out stark-naked in his swift
career to expel the cleric from the church, until he reached
the place where Ronan was.

He found the cleric at the time glorifying the King of
heaven and earth by blithely chanting his psalms with his
lined, right-beautiful psalter in front of him. Suibhne took up
the psalter and cast it into the depths of the cold-water lake
which was near him, so that it was drowned therein.

And this from the second movement:-

Thereafter, at the end of a day and a night, an otter
that was in the lake came to Ronan with the psalter, and
neither line nor letter of it was injured. Ronan gave thanks
to God for that miracle, and then cursed Suibhne, saying:
‘Be it my will, together with the will of the mighty Lord,
that even as he came stark-naked to expel me, may it
be thus that he will ever be, naked, wandering and flying
throughout the world ; may it be death from a spear-point
that will carry him off.’

The playing of the ConTempo Quartet was impressively lively and inventive.  I particularly enjoyed the musical depiction of Sweeney leaping across the land, pursued by five severed heads.  The one weak moment was the one weakness of the piece itself, the unpromising opening of the first movement, which doesn’t immediately snare the listener, drawing them in, but rather threatens a difficult evening ahead.

David Power’s pipes surprised me.  I enjoy uilleann pipe music, but most that I’ve listened to has had a more ringing character.  Here we had a lower and more plaintive sound – I kept thinking of the shepherd’s pipes in the third act of Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde.  I know nothing of the technical capabilities of the instrument, so presumably there are variations of chanters with other pitches and different tuning methods one can apply.  Perhaps this was a choice made so as not to swamp the string quartet.  That certainly never happened, though there were a couple of passages where the quartet threatened to overwhelm the pipes.

The readings were nicely done by Barry McGovern.  I found the overall narrative somewhat disjointed, but O’Keeffe, in the introduction to his translation, suggests that this is an inherent characteristic of the poem.  If so, it’s a good reason to structure the piece the way it was, with seven passages and seven movements, rather than trying to have the words and music flowing more into each other.

I think the performance is touring to other venues over the summer.  If so, it’s well worth catching up with.  I hope they make a recording.

 

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My First BristolCon

I’ve been aware of BristolCon for some years; the word-of-mouth that it’s a small, happy, friendly convention having reached even the Atlantic shores of Munster.  Having been unable to attend Belfast’s TitanCon earlier this year, a slot in my annual con-going roster had opened up and I was able to break my BristolCon duck as a result.  I’m very glad I did.

It’s nominally a one-day event but a BristolCon Fringe open mic the evening before pleasantly extended the con vibe, even if attendees at that were a little sparse because the local Waterstones had arranged a competing event, offering free beer.  Nevertheless, I was able to read the scene from A Coarse and Violent Gesture, in which the King of the Fairies gets an unwelcome visit from the local paramilitary commander.  It’s one of the stories in my Irish Tales collection, due out next year and seemed to go down well.

One of the best things about BristolCon happened well in advance of the event itself.  A great long list of possible panel topics was sent to attendees, who then voted on the ones they wanted to see at the con.  Whoever came up with this, deserves a medal.  It’s become the norm in recent years, for cons to solicit volunteers for panellists on-line, which has too often resulted in platforms being given to the worst kinds of egregious self-publicists, axe-grinders and authoritarian bigots. Who has made it to the end of an EasterCon in recent years, for example, without wanting to slash their own wrists, having been assailed from all directions by three-and-a-half days of relentless, po-faced negativity?  Giving the members this sort of control over the panel topics is a great way to mitigate the worst excesses of this trend and to celebrate instead the very many positive aspects of our hobby.

The things I enjoyed most about my first BristolCon were the following:-

  • Some actual second-hand books in the dealers’ room (yay!);
  • The brick-out room – a throwback to the old ‘fan room’ which used to be a staple of every con but which has sadly fallen by the wayside in recent years.  This one had lego and free coffee.  How about adding an MC next year, to orchestrate impromptu stuff?
  • The free book swap table – every con should have one;
  • Making some great new acquaintances.  This is one of the best reasons to move outside of your regular fandom orbits and go to a new place;
  • The wild west panel, which covered loads of ground but still managed to leave a lot uncovered – ample evidence of the richness of the topic – thereby engendering much discussion in the bar later.  I can feel a blog post coming on to recap some of this, plus to air some of the angles the panel didn’t have time to cover.  On thing I was mulling over was whether there was any (near) contemporary wild west writing containing fantasy, horror or SF elements.  The opening yarn in Arthur Machen’s The Three Impostors (1895) came to mind and also some Verne, notably The Mysterious Island (1874), which opens with an American Civil War balloon-hijack prison break and The Golden Volcano (1905), set during the Klondike gold rush.

Did BristolCon live up to its friendly brand image?  Most certainly.  Would I recommend it to anyone else?  Absolutely.  Will I go again?  Definitely; indeed next year.  Apart from anything else it was significantly cheaper for me than attending Octocon, due in no small part to the cost of accommodation in Bristol being around 50% of that for a comparable room in Dublin.

Returning to the wild west theme, here’s a quiz question for you: which SF writer, whom I have previously featured in my blog posts, died from wounds received during the American Civil War?

Irish Speculative Fiction Writers: James Stephens (1880 (or 82) – 1950)

The heart of James Stephens’ speculative fiction lies in five works, written over a dozen years, during the most turbulent period of Ireland’s history.

Two distinct strands run through them: Irish mythology and folklore in Irish Fairy Tales (1920),  Deirdre (1923) and In the Land of Youth (1924) and the interactions of gods and men in The Crock of Gold (1912) and The Demi-Gods (1914).

Stephens, a colossus in his heyday, is almost forgotten today outside of our airports, where The Crock of Gold lurks, waiting to be snapped up by those kinds of tourist who cherish video-footage of their spouses taken at the leprechaun crossing around the back of Torc Mountain.

This encapsulates part of the reason for his fall; the perceived cod-Oirishery of The Crock of Gold, came to be seen, a la Darby O’Gill, as an insult to a would-be modern, forward-looking independent state.

In reality of course, The Crock of Gold is nothing of the sort; it represents a truly magnificent attempt to write the ultimate fantasy tale of the passing of the old order to the new; of the magic going away.  Ultimately it fails, just as the faerie instauration fails, because even today people still cannot see beyond the leprechauns.  But it is an heroic failure of the highest order.

The Demi-Gods revisits this territory; the eponymous threesome descending to Earth to visit a tinker and his daughter[1].

On the Irish mythology and folklore side, Stephens was a considerable scholar and it is his total command of his subject that sets works like Deirdre and In the Land of Youth a country mile apart from all the other volumes of “retellings” that every republican mover and shaker around that time felt it necessary to have on his or her CV.  Well that and the fact that he was a very fine writer indeed.  Here’s an excerpt from Deirdre (the culmination of her fateful encounter with Naoise):-

They stopped perforce, with that feeling of tremendous discouragement wherein passion sinks back upon itself, where desire ceases and nothing is instant but weariness.  His hand yet held her, but it gripped no longer: it lay on her arm a dead weight: she had only to move an inch and it would fall away: she had but to turn and he would not follow her even with his eyes; but the energy which had drained from him flooded into her in one whirling stream, and when his hand fell away hers took up the duty it relinquished.

To my mind, it’s the greatest Irish fantasy novel of all time.

As for the rest of the reason for Stephens’ fall, like so many other staunch republican Protestants, Stephens was marginalised and ultimately excluded by the profoundly Catholic character in which Pearse and his supporters clothed the Rising and its aftermath.   It is no wonder that in questionable health and with a young family to support, Stephens threw in the towel and decamped to England in 1925.  After a decade-long struggle to earn a living lecturing he later compounded his ‘treachery’ by going to work for the BBC at a time when it was still seen as the mouthpiece of the ‘enemy[2]’.

Postscript: Bitches Have Nothing To Do With It, Mr. Gaiman

Before finishing with Stephens, its worth commenting on a parallel with a current fantasy controversy.

When James Joyce was writing Finnegan’s Wake he made a deal with Stephens (Joyce had just read Deirdre and was hugely impressed by it) to complete it for him, if he (Joyce) should die before finishing it.  I don’t believe Joyce was thinking about his readers: all he cared about was safeguarding his literary legacy.  Of course the readers get a finished book out of it but that’s nothing to do with the reason why Joyce made the arrangement with Stephens in the first place.

Fast forward ninety years or so to George R.R. Martin; the ‘American Tolkien,’ one of Time‘s top 100 persons a couple of years back and the man more than any other who put the gritty realism and grey ambiguity into fantasy.  It’s an entirely legitimate question, therefore, to ask one of such stature what he is doing to plan for the completion of A Song of Ice and Fire if he should die first, thereby safeguarding his literary legacy.

The fact that we can’t ask this question to him, is because it is now inextricably linked with the issue of reader gratification, thanks to an ill-thought-out intervention by respected commentator Neil Gaiman.

The question is nothing to do with bitches, Mr. Gaiman; Martin should be planning for this for the same reason Joyce did and no other – to safeguard his literary legacy.  That the fans get their fix too is nothing more than happenstance.

[1] It achieved notoriety more obliquely, being one of the subject panels of Harry Clarke’s Geneva Window, one of Ireland’s greatest works of art, in any medium and of any era, which was notoriously disowned by the State and now resides in a private collection in Florida.

[2] The late Terry Wogan spoke of receiving the same vilification almost thirty years later.

Time for Some E.R. Eddison

It’s a constant source of amazement to me that in a time of big screen Tolkien and Narnia adaptations and quality fantasy all over our TVs, the third corner of England’s big ‘between-the-wars’ trinity should remain so unexplored.

One can understand why E.R. Eddison’s books have had a limited readership over the years; some readers find his faux-archaic prose difficult, others fall asleep within seconds of Doctor Vandermast opening his mouth to deliver another philosophical treatise, still more have a job getting their head around characters that seem to morph into each other.  Well, it seems to me that these are all reasons for adapting his stories for the screen rather than the opposite.  Coupled of course with the fact that they’re amongst the finest fantasies ever written.

The opening of The Worm Ouroboros is famously lame.  A narrator dreams his way to Venus and is quickly forgotten.  Thereafter it is fantasy gold,  describing a glorious war between the witches and the demons, with an ending to die for, all delivered in flawless cod-Elizabethan; a device which after the first fifty or sixty pages, you’d think you’d been reading your whole life.  Don’t believe me?  Try it!

If Worm is Eddison’s masterpiece, then the later Zimiamvian trilogy (Mistress of Mistresses, A Fish Dinner in Memison, The Mezentian Gate) is the most heroic of failures.  A book is hardly the best medium with which to pull off what Eddison is attempting but he almost manages it; maybe if he had lived to complete the third volume, he would have done so.  The plot is simple enough – an early twentieth century English industrialist escapes the tragedy of his own life to live out a second life as an adventurer in a fantasy world that intersects with ours.

The masterful trick that Eddison pulls off is that he makes Lessingham (same name as the narrator of Worm but maybe not the same guy; Zimiamvia is mentioned in Worm as being visible in the distance from the high mountains of Impland but those two links are as far as the connection with the trilogy goes), the hero we’re clearly to root for, into the brilliant, incorruptible and courageous right hand man of one of the principal villains.  For Lessingham to triumph, the good guys have to lose and Eddison finds a classic bittersweet way of resolving this.

What makes the trilogy complicated is that the principal heroes and heroines are archetypes who can become inhabited by the gods.  Thus when Lessingham  notices the similarities between Mary and Fiorinda, he is seeing the common characteristics of the goddess who inhabits them both.  When he sees himself through Barganax’s eyes he is seeing what the god, who can inhabit both of them, is seeing.  It’s a difficult philosophical trick to pull off through the written word – it aches to be filmed.

The Zimiamvian trilogy has a wonderful ready made tag-line – Game of Thrones meets Downton Abbey – that alone ought to be enough to get it made.  The Three Kingdoms of Zimiamvia pre-date the seven of Westeros by fifty years as the original low-magic, high political intrigue fantasy world.  Boy-king Derxis of Akkama makes Joffrey Baratheon look like Peter Pan and the Vicar of Rerek could out-Tywin Tywin with one hand tied behind his back.  As for Vandermast, just think Pycelle on acid, constantly surrounded by a bevy of nubile lycanthropes in vintage underwear.

Eddison relates the Zimiamvia story backwards, so a good ploy might be to tell it in straightforward chronological order instead.   And of course any adaptation would have a lot of work to do fleshing out the big parts of the third book that only exist as Eddison’s outlines.  And as for those difficult characters who blur identities with each other from time to time – well just ask David Lynch to direct.  Problem solved.

The Name of the Wind: When Formula Trumps Story

Ah, the holiday season, time to get stuck into that doorwedge you’ve been meaning to, for years like.  I had very high expectations of The Name of the Wind by Patrick Rothfuss, an extravagantly praised debut fantasy novel of some seven or eight years ago, that won awards.  A few days on and I’m a third of the way through and desperately disappointed.

Like anyone, I enjoy a good story but it would be remiss of me not to confess my ulterior motive – as the author of a similarly-sized debut fantasy and currently engaged on the Sisyphean task of finding a publisher, I was eager to dissect an example of what had worked; something that had got through all the hoops, to see what I could learn from it.

The first quickly becomes obvious; Rothfuss writes seemingly effortless, lovely prose.  On a technical level The Name of the Wind is a joy to read.  My own prose, by no means bad, is going to take a lot of years to reach that level – this alone makes the book awe-inspiring.  The plot is (so far – I’ve only read a third mind) utterly formulaic. To someone who has been reading a lot of George R.R. Martin and Joe Abecrombie this was somewhat of a disappointment – one becomes habituated towards looking for the twist that turns the norm on its head.  Nevertheless, formula done really well is a rare thing, to be cherished when you find it and for the first hundred pages or so, Rothfuss nails it.  Then it all falls apart.

After Kvothe’s family is murdered he ends up a beggar on the streets of Tarbean, where it takes him an age to learn the ropes of begging and how to cut purses, whilst he lives rough, loses treasured possessions and gets beaten up a lot.  This is supposedly the same, mega-bright Kvothe who has, over the preceding narrative picked up all manner of difficult skills in minutes or hours that should take mere mortals days or weeks.  Really though, this is just not the same character at all.  This nonsense goes on for fifty pages or more, by which time my sense of credibility has been buried up to its neck in the desert, doused with honey and sprinkled with army ants.  Rothfuss then starts to give us some half-hearted and totally unconvincing guff about Kvothe being traumatised by the murders and not of his normal mind.  Too little, too late mate.  I’m sorry but for me the story has already gone forever.  At this point it’s touch and go whether I’ll even finish it and I try to always complete a book, on principle.

Once upon a time that would have been that but my own baby steps down the writing path have maybe given me a bit of insight on what went wrong that I would never have had before.  It seems to me that in The Name of the Wind formula has been allowed to trump story.  What I mean by that is that formula tells us that our orphaned, would-be avenger is going to have to hit rock bottom before he starts to claw his way up again.  The story, as written up to that point, on the other hand, tells us that twelve year old Kvothe already has the resources to never ever hit rock bottom, no matter what situation he has been thrust into.  Rothfuss fatally warps the story so as to stick to the formula and loses me in the process.

For me the greatest thrill of writing, on my short path to date, has been those moments where the story dictates something different to your original idea.  Little details accrete unnoticed until they reach a critical mass, at which point your character must deviate from your grand plan in order to remain true to the story that has emerged, quite unbidden and outside of one’s (conscious) design.  As a systems analyst I might call these the emergent properties of the story. Other writers talk of their characters developing a life of their own.  Whatever you call them, I live for these moments.  In The Name of the Wind, for me at least, this would have required Kvothe to quickly make a go of thriving in Tarbean.  What was the editor thinking?  Beguiled by the breathtaking prose in all probability.

After formula has trumped the story like this other little things start to unravel too.  The random and mostly insipid place names, which one might otherwise have forgiven, start to grate.  You irrationally begin to wonder why Rothfuss called his spider monsters scraelings, which is what the Vinland vikings called native americans.  I could go on.  But like I said, it’s gone for me at the moment.  Should I stick or twist?

Taking the Pith

I’ve not, so far, been a massive Steampunk aficionado, though that said, I was probably reading and hugely enjoying Blaylock’s early Langdon St. Ives novels before the genre even had a name.  Anyway, to try and gen up a bit, I went to a Steampunk panel at one of the cons I attended earlier in the year.  This was a mistake; what I wanted was Steampunk 101 but what I wandered into was more like postdoctoral fare.  If I found the panellists a po-faced and humourless bunch, therefore, that was probably my fault more than theirs and though I tried my best to tune in, ninety percent of it went right over my head.

One thing rankled though.  A bald proclamation that pith helmets should be banned from Steampunk cosplay because they were offensive symbols of colonial oppression.  Even in the real world my instincts suggest to me that this measure is a little over the top, even if the reasoning behind it might bear a grain of truth.  I recall a trip to Addis, where the gate to the egregious Sheraton compound was guarded by a pair of haughty, be-pithed gatekeepers.  Arriving there for a meeting in the smoke-belching, Lada rustbucket I had chosen for a taxi, my driver and I were detained for some minutes by these goons while they tried every excuse not to admit us and thereby sully their oasis.  Eventually, to stop their increasing humiliation of my driver, I had no option but to play the irate white boy card and take them down a peg.  It worked and I then made sure I used that taxi for every other trip to the Sheraton that week.  So yes; a grain.

Notwithstanding my earlier remarks, I’m not an expert in colonial history and if the historians are really putting it that strongly, then I’m happy to stand corrected and bow to their knowledge.  However.  Yes there’s a however.  Our steampunk worlds tell alternative histories. They have clockwork rayguns, marvellous goggles and fantastical airships.  Are we really saying that while we can change history to introduce these wonderful devices, the symbols of oppression from the real world are immutable and have to convey the same message in our alternate worlds?  Not very alternate then, are they?  So far as I can see it’s just one more example of political correctness gone mad.

It makes me want to write a Steampunk story about a valiant adventurer, the pith-topped Matt Helmet, who patrols the Congo river in his spiffy submarine the Tigerfish, righting colonial wrongs, a symbolic pith helmet carved onto the verandah of every vanquished villain, before he melts once more into the night.  And in the mornings when the people see it there, they cheer!

World War I: Some Fantasy and SF Connections

A few days ago a nice copy of Talbot Mundy’s Hira Singh, illustrated by Joseph Clement Coll, dropped onto my mat. Published in 1918, it’s a novel inspired by the true story of some Sikh troops who were captured by the Germans in Flanders in 1915, imprisoned in a Turkish PoW camp and who then escaped that, to trek overland back to their depot in India.

As it’s the 100th anniversary, this set me thinking about what other fantasy and SF connections to WWI I had come across. What follows is not intended to be exhaustive; it’s just a survey of a few things I’ve come across over the years.

Mundy, of course, did not see active service, having a few years before emigrated to the USA. His most direct connection with WWI was with its aftermath in Palestine, which he visited in the early 1920s. He became a friend of Faisal I, who featured in his novel The King in Check (aka The Affair in Araby), one of several works Mundy wrote to try and expose British and French duplicity towards the arabs.

One of the most eminent genre writers to die in WWI was horror master William Hope Hodgson who was killed by a shell at Ypres in April 1918. Irish poet Francis Ledwidge, whose output included a number of mystical and mythological works also died at Ypres, in July 1917. Lord Dunsany was his patron. Dunsany himself served in the Royal Enniskillen Fusiliers, spent time in the trenches and later wrote propaganda for the War Office. His experiences fed his 1918 collection Tales of War, which included the short story The Road, written as a tribute to Ledwidge.

One of my favourite WWI works is Letters to Helen by Scottish artist and illustrator Keith Henderson, who later did the marvellous illustrations and decorations for Eddison’s The Worm Ouroboros. The work intersperses the (often extraordinary) paintings he made as an artist serving on the Western Front, with the letters he sent home during that period.

A very eminent SF writer who took part in WWI was Olaf Stapledon. As a quaker, he objected to combat and so served as a driver in the Friends Ambulance Service. He later wove these experiences into his episodic, visionary novel Last Men in London.

Zimiamvia’s Cartographer: Gerald Ravenscourt Hayes (1889 – 1955).

Put the name of Gerald Ravenscourt Hayes into Google, hit the ‘feeling lucky’ button and it might handily come up with the goodreads.com entry which announces him proudly as the ‘Cartographer of Mistress of Mistresses.’ ‘Bullseye!’ you might think, but unfortunately that’s about as good as it gets! If you want to find out anything more about the elusive Mr. Hayes you are going to have to do some serious digging.

What follows below is as much as I could unearth online and is linked together where necessary with a little not too far-fetched (I hope) speculation. I would particularly have liked to have had the time to visit the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Archive in Taunton, so as to try and flesh out the material on his career. If any readers of this article happen to be his descendents, or are otherwise in possession of biographical material on him I would be delighted to hear from you, with a view to expanding this piece. A photograph of the man would be nice!

-oOo-

Gerald R. Hayes was born in 1889, in Hammersmith, London, the eldest son and the second of four children of the noted landscape painter Frederick William Hayes (1848 – 1918) and his wife Eliza. He was educated at Cranleigh School, and entered the Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty as a cartographer in February 1911 on foot of a successful Civil Service Commission examination. A few years on, 1918 saw both his father’s death and his own marriage to Mary Winifred Yule in Chelsea that September.

He enjoyed a successful lifelong career as a civil servant at the Admiralty, mostly in the Hydrographic Department, before eventually transferring to become the Head of Welfare and Accommodation in the Establishment Department, this probably a result of his lifelong interest in Whitley Councils[1]. He was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) in the New Year’s Honours List for 1950 and shortly afterwards retired to Chichester in Sussex, where he died on September 13th 1955.

The obituaries that followed his death invariably labelled him as ‘the civil servant and eminent musicologist’ and it is this statement that is key to the man – the Civil Service may have been his life, but music was clearly his love. Gerald Hayes was a gifted pianist and had a particular liking for Scriabin. He had also learnt to play the viol, being a passionate adherent of the teachings of Dolmetsch, in particular the idea that early music sounded best when played on the instruments for which it was written.   From his twenties onwards he was a regular contributor to various academic music journals. It is no surprise, therefore, that he was a founder of the Dolmetsch Foundation in 1928 and first editor of its journal The Consort. At the time of his death he was editor of The Galpin Society Journal.

His reputation as a musicologist rests substantially on his definitive scholarly work Musical Instruments and Their Music 1500 – 1750 (1928-30). Two volumes were published, the short introductory volume entitled The Treatment of Instrumental Music and the longer, second volume on The Viols and other Bowed Instruments. More volumes were planned, but never published, although some work was done on the third, to be entitled The Lutes and other Plucked Instruments. Its non-appearance may perhaps be explained by the fact that a facsimile edition of a seventeenth century work on lutes[2] on which he has been working and which contained substantial critical analysis and annotation, had reached an advanced stage of preparation when it was destroyed in the London Blitz. Hayes later wrote, “By 1940 everything was ready and the letterpress, duffed-out photographs, and engraved music were all photographed together onto glass, from which the zinc lithographic plates were made: at that stage a bomb fell on the printing works and everything disappeared without a trace.”

Hayes would have been no stranger to the ideas of fantasy and of the mediaeval setting. His father had been a friend of Samuel Butler (1835 – 1902) and Haye’s himself attended some of the Erewhon Dinners that Butler’s friend and biographer Henry Festing Jones had organised to celebrate his life and works in the period 1908 to 1914. In 1926 Hayes himself had written a book on sixteenth century playwright Anthony Munday’s romances of chivalry and he is also known to have been a devotee of the Georgian language and Georgian literature. Without a doubt he will have felt completely at home with Zimiamvia.

Clearly Hayes’s day job as a cartographer well qualified him for the role of Zimiamvia’s mapmaker. In 1927, The Admiralty Chart Agency had published a slim volume of 22 pages by him entitled The Production of An Admiralty Chart, intended as a reference work for mariners, and he published several more volumes on charts over the course of his career. A more pertinent question might be what led him to get the Zimiamvia job, for whilst by the early 1930’s he would have been well connected in the publishing world in general, there must have been many more obvious candidates who had the established track record in book illustration.

For the answer, Occam’s Razor tells us to look no further than good old Civil Service networking. In his after-note to Mistress of Mistresses (1935) E.R. Eddison specifically thanks three friends of his: Keith Henderson for the decorations, George Rostrevor Hamilton and Gerald Ravenscourt Hayes for a critical reading of the manuscript and of Hayes ‘…also for his delightful maps which should help readers in picturing to themselves the country where the action takes place.’ Eddison (1882 – 1945) worked at the Board of Trade from 1906 to 1938, Henderson (1883 – 1982), already an established artist and book illustrator, had been despatched to the Western Front by the War Ministry (which led to his brilliant illustrated memoir Letters to Helen (1917)) and in later life he designed posters for London Transport and the Empire Marketing Board. So it may well be that they had become initially acquainted through their Civil Service connections.

But we need to return to thirteen years before Zimiamvia, to 1922, when Eddison had burst onto the literary scene with his utterly unique first novel, The Worm Ouroboros. The critical reception of it will have generated an enormous amount of interest in the kind of circles that Hayes moved in. Equally it is known from contemporary accounts that many readers were frustrated by the lack of maps in the book. So it ought to come as no surprise that by 1925, someone with Hayes’s background should have a sufficently piqued curiosity to try to map Witchland and Demonland for himself. Hayes, writing in the Civil Service Arts Magazine (the August – October 1930 issue)[3] takes up the story as follows:-

‘Guided only by internal evidence, I constructed a series of maps, both on small scales and large enough to show all the details. Everything fell in happily and even latitudes were available from references to stars. Some time after, I found that the author, with characteristic thoroughness, had made relief models in wax when planning his book. The agreement of my maps with these, proved the realism of his scenes.‘

Based on this, we might deduce that Hayes did not know Eddison in 1925, but became acquainted with him ‘some time after’ that and before he penned his article in 1930, either through Civil Service happenstance or through a definite wish to have his maps validated by the source.

There is a postscript to the Worm Ouroboros map story. February 17th 1943 was the occasion of the first of Eddison’s two meetings with C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and the Inklings[4] and whatever they talked about it is hardly likely to be coincidence that four days later Hayes wrote to C.S. Lewis, presenting him with one of the Worm Ouroboros maps that he had made. Lewis wrote back ‘I have a passion for imaginary maps and look forward to hours of amusement with yours!’ Apparently this map has survived to the present, but I can find no instance of a picture of it having ever been published.

Hayes produced three maps for Mistress of Mistresses:-

·         The Three Kingdoms, showing Rerek and Meszria and in the northward continuation on a reduced scale, Fingiswold. The same map was also published with the second and third volumes of the trilogy (A Fish Dinner in Memison (1941) and The Mezentian Gate (incomplete and posthumous 1958). This is the only one I can find an image of online here;

·         The Meszrian Border – plotting Lessingham’s rout of Roder at the Ings of Lorkan;

·         The Campaign in North Rerek – plotting the manoeuverings of the armies that culminated with Lessingham’s victories against first Ercles at Leveringay and then Jeronimy at Ridinghead.

What one can say of Hayes’s style is that they are more map-like than many of the arty or cartoonish maps we find adorning fantasy books today. They have an indefinable sense of balance, scale and accuracy that perhaps only a working cartographer could pull off so effortlessly and the adornments of little ships and huge compass points hark back to a particular time and place that is perfectly in keeping with Eddison’s setting.

Update: July 2017

I discovered recently that Hayes also produced the maps for Eddison’s translation of Egil’s Saga (1930).  One of them, ‘Norway in the Saga Time,’ is pictured here.  The other is the ‘Map of Burgfirth.’

Based on this timing, it’s likely that Eddison’s initial contact with Hayes was made while seeking an illustrator for this work.  When Hayes penned his civil service article, therefore, he must have already completed the Egil’s Saga commission.  It’s interesting that the style of these maps is distinctly more modern than the Zimiamvian ones that came later.

 


[1] An industrial relations instrument – effectively an early attempt at putting in place a means of collective bargaining.

[2] The Lutes Apology by Richard Mathew.

[3] Source: Saler, Michael T. (2012). As If: Modern Enchantment and the Literary Prehistory of Virtual Reality. OUP (US), pp 224.

[4] A society of Oxford writers, set up by Lewis, Tolkien and others.